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    陳來:中日韓儒學的歷史文化特色

         如果從一個大視野來看,儒學不僅僅是中國人的文化,至少是東亞(中日韓以及越南)一個重要的歷史文化傳統。學術界、文化界對儒學對東亞社會的塑造作用以及對東亞價值觀的形成極為重視。可以說,儒學不僅僅是中國的文化,更是東亞共同的文化。


      日本京都大學已故歷史學家島田虔次,曾稱宋明理學是東亞文明的共同體現。在這個意義上,儒學包括兩代,第一代先秦儒學,第二代新儒學,兩代都是東亞文明的共同體現。當然它發源于中國,但同時也傳播到東亞,成為東亞文明的共同體現,也成為東亞文化的共同傳統。


      但是日本、韓國除了中華文化傳播過去以外,本地也有自己的一些歷史文化因素,包括宗教、一些民俗文化的傳統。一個外來的思想文化在本地生根發芽,一定會受到本地思想文化因素的影響。于是,經過長期的磨合以后,在日本、韓國社會里得到發展、得到強調的那個形態的儒學可能就跟其他地區的有所不同。


      儒家思想發源于中國,這是中國人的常識。但是儒家思想又廣泛傳播到東亞漢字文化圈。因為以漢字為基礎、以漢文的典籍體系為主要內容的中華文化很早就傳播到東亞鄰邦,在漫長的歷史文化發展過程中,由于各民族本地的傳統不同,精神氣質不一樣,地理、歷史、社會存在條件的不一樣,造成文化的差異,在一個漫長的發展過程中,中國、日本、韓國的儒學形成了各自的個性和特色。


      如果把仁義禮智信這五德作為儒學代表性的價值,那么它們在中、日、韓各國儒學中都受到普遍的提倡。但因為歷史-社會-傳統的制約,不僅使得歷史上形成的三國的儒者的精神風貌不一樣,而且每個社會里面儒學的價值系統和其支配性的原理也有所不同,從而使這三個國家儒學的精神氣質呈現出不同。


      中國的儒學雖然也提倡“義”,也重視“忠”,但更推崇的是“仁恕”之道。日本儒學雖然也講“仁”與“義”,但比起中國、韓國,更突出“忠勇”的價值。韓國儒學雖然在理論上兼重仁義禮智信五常,但比較起來,因為有士禍的歷史、外患的歷史,形成了一個更加注重“義節”的精神。


      這種不同反映了各自價值體系的差異,也可以說反映了三個國家文化原理的不同,當然也反映在三國各自近代化的進程之中。


      比如中國的儒學以“仁恕”為原理,變成一種普遍主義的價值原理,一種對仁愛的平等價值的追求,因此在近代對西方的文明半信半疑。


      日本因為突出“忠”和“勇”的價值,在接受近代文明方面就較少受到價值的阻礙,對帝國主義沒有根本抵觸。


      韓國充滿“義節”精神的儒學,可以說造就了韓國近代民族的主體性,對近代民族國家的形成和發展起了一種促進作用。


      綜合起來說,“仁”包含的是一種和諧原則,“義”所凸顯的是正義原則,“忠”體現的是秩序原則,這些原則應該是現代東亞社會任何一個國家都必需的。


      因此從這個角度來講,在當今東亞國家和地區,中日韓三國如果就歷史文化傳統來講,都應該在進一步反思傳統的優點和缺點的同時,能夠吸取其他民族和地區一些發展的優點,取長補短,使每一個國家在精神成長和發展方面能夠走向更完善,這樣也有利于中日韓三個國家互相了解和建立一個和諧的未來。


      (本文節選自《北京日報》2019年5月13日16版《書海觀潮:全球化歷史進程中的亞洲文明》)

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